Invited Plenary Talks
From Fragmentation and Complexity to Community and Common Cause
Donald deB Beaver
Professor of History of Science, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267, USA
would like to thank Prof. Hildrun Kretschmer for her kind and gracious
invitation to speak at this meeting, and also thank Dr. Ramesh Kundra
for his extensive efforts in helping to host and organize this meeting.
We are indeed fortunate to have such a modern, well-equipped, and pleasant
venue for our meeting, which marks the 3rd International Conference
on Webometrics, Informetrics, Scientometrics, and Science and Society,
as well as the 8th COLLNET meeting.
Invited Plenary Talks
Steunpunt O&O Indicatoren, K. U. Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)
IRPS, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)
to deSolla Price (1963) massive funding is one of the characteristics
of ‘big science’; team work is another. Above all, economic
and intra-scientific factors are responsible for intensifying collaboration
(e.g., deB. Beaver & Rosen 1978, 1979, Luukkonen et
al., 1992, 1993). Sharing equipment, resources or observations/data
and bundling efforts are among the traditional motives of academic
co-operation and its sharp rise. Furthermore, changing communication
patterns and increasing mobility of scientists have also contributed
to intensifying collaboration. However, collaboration in science is
at most partially a self-organising phenomenon. The necessity of collaboration
is also a consequence of increasing inter- and cross-disciplinarity
as well as of the ongoing internationalisation and globalisation of
science (e.g., Zitt & Basselcoulard, 2004). Besides these
essential factors, science policy and research management has at least
indirectly contributed to the spectacular intensification of scientific
collaboration which we can characterise as ‘inflationary values’ (Persson et
al., 2004). Deb. Beaver (2001) has – in addition
to the economic and intra-scientific factors – identified ‘improving
access to funds’, ‘obtaining prestige or visibility’, ‘collaboration
for professional advancement’ as important reasons for planning
or doing joint research. Access to funding and the scientists’ attempt
to strengthen their own position in the community has resulted in an
increasing number of co-authors and institutions involved in the research. Cronin (2001)
recognised honorific authorship and hyperauthorship as two symptoms
of this inflationary process.
Invited Plenary Talks
Collaboration Network of 36 Research Universities in China
Chen Yue 1, Liu Zeyuan 2
2 WISE Lab of Dalian University of Technology, 116085, Dalian(China), E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper aims to display the collaboration between Chinese 36 research universities in recent 5 years based on centrality concept in Social Network Analysis. It was found that there is short of collaboration between Chinese universities, although these 36 research universities are the most powerful in R&D ability, some of them situated in a periphery position, it isn’t benefit for them to advance academic ability in future.
Invited Plenary Talks
Collaboration in HIV/AIDs Research in Eastern and Southern Africa,
Department of Library and Information Science, University of Zululand South Africa
The paper examines the trend and type of HIV/AIDS research collaboration in E&S Africa(18 countries) and recommends ways of improving or strengthening such collaborative activities. Responds to the following sub-questions: What is the trend of single and multiple-author papers between 1980 and 2005? What is the degree and extent of HIV/AIDS research collaboration in E&S Africa? What are the types of collaboration in HIV/AIDS research, i.e. domestic, regional and international, etc? Who or which are the collaborating authors, institutions, and countries in the two regions? What is the growth rate and composition of author collaborative networks in E&S Africa? Which are the geographic areas of research focus of the major author networks.
A Survey of Collaboration Rate Among of Iranian LIS Students in Producing Scientific Articles for Annual Student Conference of Al-Zahra University
Amir Reza Asnafi 1, Farshid Danesh 2, Maryam Pakdaman naeini 3
1 PhD Student of Library and Information
Sciences,Iran, University of Ahwas, Email:email@example.com
Collaboration in research and production
of scientific publications is common in all academic areas. This collaboration
among researchers results in the development of scientific knowledge
and hence the attainment of wider information. The significance of collaboration in
the production of scientific publications in today's complex world
where technology is everything is very apparent. Scientists from many
nations have realized that in order to get their work wildly used and
cited to by experts, they must collaborate. This research aims to survey
the rate of collaboration among Iranian LIS students on the production
of scientific articles for the annual student conference of Al-Zahra
University and assess their contribution to domestic scientific production
in the field of Library and Information Sciences. It is through the
efforts of the Al-zahra library and information science students accosiation
and their lecturers , that this annual conference happens every
year and has been able to bring together lecturers, librarians and
LIS students in order to debate the latest information in the aforementioned
field since its establishment in 2000 for seven consecutive years.
As this is a student conference and most of the LIS students of all
levels submit papers to this conference. The aim of the present article
is to survey the rate of collaboration among contributors which in
turn should clarify the contribution of Iranian LIS students in the
production of these articles. To that end submitted articles and thematic
inclinations of each conference has been examined.
Indian Contributions to the Field of Hepatitis (1984-2003): A Scientometric Study
B Ramesh Babu 1, J Ramakrishnan 2
1 Department of Information Science,
University of Madras, CHENNAI
600 005, India, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper presents a scientometric study of Indian contributions in the field of Hepatitis covered in the bibliographic database namely MEDLINE. The literature covered in the database for the period 1984-2003 was considered. MEDLINE covered the maximum of 939 records during the study period i.e. 1984 to 2003. 71% (666) of all the cited records were “journal articles”. Out of a total 939 records, all of them were in English language forming 100% of the total. The results of the Activity Index indicate that India’s efforts in Hepatitis research were higher than the world during the study period i.e. 1984-2003. Only three journals are needed to supply one-third of the cited references for zone 1. The most frequently cited journals are general medicine titles with 26.9%. 87.3% of the total contributions are collaborative research with different degrees of collaboration. The average degree of collaboration is 0.87. The collaborative research tends to be more in the field of Hepatitis.
Scenario of Foreign Collaborations and Technology Transfer - The Case of Indian Cement Industry
P R Bose 1 , Sujit Bhattacharya 2
National Institute of Science Technology and Development Studies, K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi.
Govt. of India introduced the New
Industrial Policy (NIP) in 1991. This policy had significant change
in the industrial climate of the country. Among others, it eased norms
and regulations for companies to forge foreign collaborations and provided
channels for import of technology. The policy of the Government of
India before the NIP was selective and was designed to direct investment
into areas, which were expected to reinforce R&D efforts to accelerate
the country’s economic growth. Foreign collaborations were therefore
primarily sought in areas, which required sophisticated technology
or where critical production gaps existed or which would enhance the
export potential. Government’s policy with regard to foreign
technical collaboration was therefore primarily based on national priorities.
Collaborations were welcome especially in export-oriented
or import substitution industries. They were also encouraged
for enabling indigenous industry to upgrade existing technology in
the country to meet competition from major units and to suit changing
consumer preferences and/or to become competitive in export market. The
growth of Indian cement industry had direct bearing on the policy changes.
It affected all aspects of the cement industry: production, utilisation,
monopoly position, capital flow, foreign collaboration. This study
will mainly focus on the foreign collaborations over the period and
also attempt to analyse the technology changes in the industry due
to the collaborations.
Detecting Epistemic Fields Dynamics from A Scientific Content Database
David Chavalarias 1 & Jean-Philippe Cointet 2
Ecole Polytechnique, 1, rue Descartes, 75005 Paris, France, E-mail: email@example.com
Massive collections of scientific publications are now available on-line thanks to multiple public platforms. These databases usually cover large-scale scientific production over several decades and for a broad range of thematic areas. Today researchers are used to perform queries on these databases with keywords or combination of keywords in order to find articles associated to a precise scientific field. This full text indexation performed for millions of articles represents a huge amount of public information. But instead of being used to characterize articles, can we revert the standpoint and use this information to characterize concepts neighborhood and their evolution? In this paper we give a yes answer to this question looking more precisely at the way concepts can be dynamically clustered to shed light on the way paradigm are structured. We define an asymmetric paradigmatic proximity between concepts which provide hierarchical structure to the scientific database upon which we test our methods (20 000 000 scientific articles). We also propose an overlapping categorization to describe paradigms as sets of concepts that may have several usages. This approach can be fully automatized and applied to get insight on other kind of electronic corpuses, among them blogs and web pages.
Analyzing Technological Innovation Competitiveness of Taiwan Corporations through Patent Indicators
Dar-Zen Chen 1, Mu-Hsuan Huang 2*, Paul Chang-Bin Liu 3
1 Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,
National Taiwan University Taipei, Taiwan
This study attempts to evaluate the technology innovation competitiveness of Taiwanese corporations through patent analysis. In addition to the patent indicators generally used, we develop two new patent indicators named Essential Patent Index (EPI) and Essential Technological Strength (ETS) to assess the innovation competitiveness of the corporations. 70 companies that have the most patents granted by USPTO from 1998 to 2003 were reviewed in this study. The 70 companies were grouped into 6 different industrial categories and the indicators were used to evaluate the performance of each company. In addition to revealing the innovation competitiveness of these Taiwanese companies, the results also serve as references for the government and enterprises for their future plans in industrial development and patenting policies.
Investigation of Web indicators for Agricultural Web Sources on India
K S Chudamani 1, C A Sharadamma 2
1 JRD Tata Memorial Library, IISc, Bangalore –12, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Agriculture is an important sector of the Indian economy. A study of its web indicators is a fruitful exercise to understand the structure of the same in the context of information retrieval. This paper explores the web indicators of agricultural resources in India and their optimization using Lorenz curve approach as an example for web based information retrieval.
Status of Physics Research in India:
B M Gupta 1, S M Dhawan 2
1 National Institute of Science,
Technology & Development Studies, Dr K.S.Krishnan Marg, New Delhi – 11012,
E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Review the present status of Indian physics, particularly with regard to the nature of research system, nature of institutions involved, type of education available and outturn at postgraduate and Ph.D level, the extent of extra-mural funding support available from various agencies, and the nature of professional organizations involved Analyses the growth of Indian physics output, as reflected in mainstream international journals covered in Expanded Science Citation Index (Web of Science) during 1993-01. Discusses the various features of Indian physics research output, such as growth, institutional publication productivity, nature of collaboration, and the quality and impact of its research output.
Bibliometric Assessment of Scientific Journals from DBs JCR Social Science Edition
Aneta Drabek 1, Irina Marshakova-Shaikevich 2
The present paper is devoted to bibliometric analysis of scientific journals presented in JCR:SSE DBs in 1994-1998 period. For I&LS journals this periopd was extended to 2004. The idea of Standard impact factor (K) which is used for evaluation of journals was to compare the traditional impact factor (Ip) of a journal, as indicated in JCR DB, with the average impact factor of the corresponding field of knowledge (Ig). Some examples of the results of this study are given in tabular form.
Traditional System of Medicine: A Scientometric Profile of Herbal Medicine Research in India and China
Bharvi Dutt 1, Suresh Kumar 2, K.C.Garg 3
3 National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies, Pusa Gate, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110 012, (India)
An analysis of 2183 papers published by Chinese researchers and 1034 papers published by Indian researchers in the field of herbal medicine during 1990-2004 and indexed by PubMed (MEDLINE) indicates that China’s output is more than twice the India’s output. Medical universities and colleges mainly contribute China’s output, while the Indian output mainly comes from the academic institutions. Chinese activity index declined during 1993-2001 as compared to 1990-1992, while that of India has gone up during the same period. Chinese researchers mainly emphasized on aspects of chemical analysis, extraction and isolation, and drug herbal interaction, while Indian researchers main emphasis has been on the use of herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Chinese researchers prefer to publish their research results in domestic journals, while Indian researchers preferred to publish their research results in journals published from the advanced countries of the West. Also the share of papers in journals covered by SCI for India was higher than that from China. However, the proportion of papers in high impact factor journals for China is higher than India. Also Chinese papers received more citations than the Indian papers. The value of collaborative coefficient for both the countries is almost the same indicating that the pattern of co-authorship for both the countries is similar.
Database Coverage and the Consequences for Bibliometric Research: A Study of Intra-Disciplinary Differences
Tove Faber Frandsen 1, Jeppe Nicolaisen 2
Royal School of Library and Information Science, irketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., DENMARK, email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Intra-disciplinary differences in database coverage affect the results of bibliometric research based on retrieved data from databases. Large differences in the discipline of Economics are documented including quite uneven coverage of economic specialties and research traditions. These observable facts have consequences for all bibliometricians - not only those studying the discipline of Economics. Intra-disciplinary differences in database coverage are likely to be widespread. Consequently, specialties and research traditions of any discipline are not covered equally well in databases. The implications for bibliometric research are discussed, and possible precautions are outlined.
Web Services: A Study of XML Technology
Gadagin B R 1, Parashuram S Kattimani 2
1. Research Fellow, Dept of Library & Information
Science, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga – 585
The integration of information systems must consider various aspects, including the individuals of an organization, cooperating with other vendors, and the connections within this organization. The advantages of integration include shortening the negotiation process among the organization and the cooperating vendors, saving time for the users, and identifying the interface management. However, the greatest difficulties are how to integrate different system platforms and implement technical aspects into a suitable Web-interface for users to operate. Information technology companies have developed Web Services which rely on the flexibility of the Extended Mark-up Language. The services not only apply to integrated information systems, but also provide open services in Web environments. This article evaluates the feasibility of Web Services for application in integrated library information systems.
A Simple Technique to Normalize Impact Factor of Journals
K.C.Garg 1, Suresh Kumar 2, Bharvi Dutt 3
1 National Institute
of Science, Technology and Development Studies (NISTADS), New Delhi,
Various methods have been suggested in the literature to normalize the impact factor of journals. However, these methods have their own limitations. Present communication suggests an alternative method to normalize the impact factor of journals based on average impact of journals.
Role and Contribution of High Productivity Institutions in Different Sub-Fields of Indian Physics
S.M.Dhawan 1 and B.M.Gupta 2
1 National Physical Laboratory,
New Delhi 110012, email@example.com
India has more than a century old
tradition of contributing to physics. The physics research in
India is an institutional activity organized under various sectors,
such as Universities & Colleges, Institutes of National Importance,
R&D, Industry, etc. By far, institutions under Universities & Colleges
and R&D sectors contribute the largest share to the country
research output in physics. There are at present more than 400 organizations
engaged in research in different branches of physics, employing more
than 5000 Ph.D and more than 10.000 M.Sc workers. A large number of
universities & colleges offer postgraduate teaching and research
and award annually around 600 to 700 Ph.Ds. Even though physics institutions
are spread through the country, but the research activity in physics
is confined mainly to select few important high productivity institutions.
Such high productivity institutions in the country are relatively better
placed. They possess comparatively more qualified and skilled manpower,
have developed strong network linkages, and command better-quality
research and technical infrastructure and the state of the art research
facilities. In all, India had been having institutional participation
from 1307 institutions in physics research as seen from publications
data during 1993-01. During this period India published a total
of 27018 papers in 378 mainstream national and international journals.
Of the, total participating institutions 1307), only 64 had published
100 or more papers each and accordingly these institutions have categorized
as high productivity institutions (HPIs) in this paper. These 64 high
productivity institutions have together contributed 23,835 papers,
accounting for 88% of the total Indian physics output during 1993-2001.
Of the 64 HPIs, eight belong to Institutes of National Importance (INIs),
23 to Research Institutions (RIs), and 33 to Universities & Colleges
(Univ). In this paper, high productivity institutions engaged in physics
research and publishing at least 100 or more papers during 1993-01
were studied using a number of quantitative indicators. A few important
studies have been carried out in the country in the past based on the
physics and related publications output. Broad characteristics of Indian
physics research output in different periods have been studied by Dhawan
and Gupta, etc.1-6 from time to time. The quality of Indian physics
research output has been studied by Dhawan and Gupta7 using journal
impact factor and citations received per paper in the Indian context.
Since, so far no study has been undertaken on the contribution and
impact of high productivity institutions in Indian context in physics,
as a result the need was felt to undertake the present study. The objective
of this study is to study the performance of high productivity institutions
(HPI) in physics, using various quantitative indicators. It also compares
different types of high productivity institutions for their relative
performance in different branches of physics.
Lotka’s Distribution and Distribution of Co-Author Pairs
Kretschmer, Hildrun 1,2,3 and Kretschmer, Theo 3
of Library and Information Science, Humboldt-University of Berlin,
Dorotheenstr. 26, D-10099 Berlin, Germany
The original Lotka’s Law refers
to single scientist distribution.
However with increasing collaboration in science and in technology
the study of the frequency of pairs or triples, etc. of co-authors
is highly relevant.
A Bibliometric Analysis of Indian Journal of Entomology (IJE), 1989-2003
Surendra Kumar 1, S Kumar 2, Geeta Shah 3
1 Documentation Officer, National
Research Centre for Soybean (ICAR), Indore – 452 017 (M.P.)
Analyses 1429 research papers comprising 1117 main articles (MA) & 312 short notes (SN) published in fifteen volumes nos. 51-65 published for the year 1989-2003 in Indian Journal of Entomology. The study reveals status of entomological research and importance of insect & pest control in India. Also gives an account of IJE, objectives & methodology of this study. Analyses year wise distribution, length of articles, & use of tables, graphs and diagrams. Finds out authorship pattern and calculates collaboration coefficients. Also finds out profilic contributors, location of papers and subject & crop wise distribution. Analyses number of citations per article.
Malaria Research, 1980-2004, and the Burden of Disease
Grant Lewison 1, Divya Srivastava 2
Malaria is estimated to cause about 1.6% of the 57 million deaths occurring annually and 2.3% of the disease burden. However it accounts for only about 0.4% of world biomedical research, and this percentage is barely changing. Most of the research takes place in Europe and North America, which are little affected directly by the disease, 90% of whose burden occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. Research includes both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical approaches; the fastest growing ones involve the artemisinins and genetics. Leading countries in malaria research (including India, Thailand, Kenya and Nigeria) differ greatly in the subjects that they favour.
Health Research Collaboration in Mexico
Macías-Chapula C A 1, Mendoza-Guerrero J A 2, Rodea-Castro I P 3, Gutiérrez-Carrasco A 4, Juárez-Sánchez E 5
The purpose of this work is to present
the exploratory results of a research in progress on the patterns of
health research collaboration in Mexico. A selection of the 25 Mexican
leading institutions in health research was conducted in order to identify
the patterns of collaboration of such institutions, as reflected in
the Web of Science (WOS) for the period 1990-2005. The study included
only those institutions conducting mainly clinical research at hospitals,
clinics or national institutes of health. For each selected institution
a distribution of documents by number of authors was conducted. This
led to the identification of co-authorships as derived from the work
of two or more collaborators. Collaboration was then classified in
four types as follows: (a) intra-institutional; (b) national; (c) regional,
within the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regions; and (d) international.
Patterns of collaboration were thus analyzed through type of documents,
language of publication and behavior of collaboration over time. Microsoft
Excel 2000; Microsoft Access 2000; and Bibexcel 2001 were used in the
different processes involved in the validation and organization of
data. Results indicated a general pattern of collaboration in all 25
institutions. Over 90% of the production in each institution was published
by the collaboration of two or more authors. Identification of institutional
benchmarking in terms of production and collaboration was possible
to obtain. Regional collaboration was mainly with South American countries;
and international collaboration was more significant with European
countries. In spite of the fact that regional and international collaboration
was found, we can conclude that health research collaboration in Mexico
is mainly national and intra-institutional. Further research is needed
not only to evaluate research performance activities but also to take
action and to improve capacity building regarding health research infrastructure,
human resources and social empowerment in the LAC regions.
Information Use Pattern of Structural Engineering Scientists - A Bibliographic Case Study of Journal of Structural Engineering, Structural Engineering Research Centre, India.
S Maheswaran 1, R D Sathish Kumar 2, Dr. K.R. Sridharan 3
1 Scientist, 2 Information Officer, 3 Dy Director, Information Division, Structural Engineering Research Centre, CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai -600113, India
Knowledge generation for LIS professionals is the study of citation pattern of research papers published in general. This paper analyses the citation pattern of research papers published during 2000 – 2005 in the Journal of Structural Engineering, Structural Engineering Research Centre (JoSE, SERC) Chennai, India. It is studied in order to develop knowledge for information use pattern of scientists engaged in structural engineering activities in particular. Of the total 2049 citations appended to 168 research papers, the highest of 49.88% citation from journals followed by that from reference and text books (26.26%), 8.39 % from proceeding of conferences / seminars / symposia, 6.49% from codes / standards, 4.88% from reports, 3.26% from thesis and as low from website at 0.83%. The obsolescence factor of structural engineering literature is found to be 15-16 years. It is noted that structural engineering literature complies with Bradford’s law of scattering. Based on the number of citations received, rank list of journals published is prepared.
Scientometric Portrait of Nobel Laureate Alan J. Heeger
Mallikarjun Angadi 1, Muttayya Koganuramath 2, B. S. Kademani 3, B D Kumbar 4, Suresh Jange 5
1 Sir Dorabji Tata Memorial Library,
Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Deonar, Mumbai – 400 088,
This paper attempts to analyse quantitatively, the publication productivity of Alan J. Heeger, the Nobel Prize winner of 2000 in Chemistry. He was honoured with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his outstanding contribution at 65 years of biological age and at 41 years of research publishing career. He had 746 publications during 1960–2004 in various domains: Polymers and Macromolecules (569), Phase Transition (36), Localised Magnetic Moments in Metals (12), Magnetism (40), Bio-Sensors (8), Thin Films (17), One Dimensional Metal (21), and Miscellaneous (43) which were analysed for authorship pattern with his 482 collaborators. His publication productivity peaked in 1979 with 35 publications. The average number of publications per year was 18.19. His H-index is 107. The most productive collaborators with Alan J. Heeger were : MacDiarmid, A. G. (133), Moses, D. (112), Wudl, F. (69), Garito, A. F. (62), Cao, Y. (61),Yu, G. (61), Lee, C. H. (41), Chiang, C. K. (34), Sariciftci, N. S. (33), Wang, J (32), Smith, P. (28), Chen, J (27), Yang, Y. (24), Chung, T. C. (24), Bazan, G. C. (23), Zhang, C. (22), Ehrenfreund, E. (20). He had only 37 single authored papers (4.96%). His 95.04 per cent of papers were collaborative in nature. The highest collaboration rate (1) for Alan J. Heeger was found during 1960, 1966, 1968, 1971-1973, 1975-1976, 1978, 1980, 1982-1984, 1988, 1990, 1992-1994, 1996-1997, 2003. Journals have been the most preferred channel of communication where, as many as 695 papers out of 746 have been published. The core journals publishing his papers were: Adv. Mater. (17), Appl. Phys. Lett. (29), Chem. Phys. Lett. (23), J. Am. Chem. Soc. (8), J. Appl. Phys. (25), J. Chem. Phys. (28), J. Electrochem. Soc. (8), Macromol. (15), Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (12), Phys. Rev. (108), Phys. Rev. B (19), Phys. Rev. Lett. (37), Sol. State. Commun. (57), Synth. Met. (98).
Ranking Approaches for Search Engine Result Sets for a Semi-Automated Generation of Occurrences in Topic Maps
Bernd Markscheffel 1, Hendrik Thomas 2
1 & 2 Technical University Ilmenau, Chair of Information and Knowledge Management, Bernd.Markscheffel | Hendrik.Thomas@TU-Ilmenau.de
Merlino is a prototype that supports a semi-automated generation of occurrences using search engines. The prototype identifies relevant information resources by querying multiple search engines automatically based on the knowledge stored in a given topic map. Merlino combines the retrieval power of search engines with the ability to express semantic relationships in topic maps. Various ranking mechanisms (e.g. Search Engine Score, Web Impact Factor – WIF, AlexaTraffic Rank and Google PageRank) are used in Merlino to facilitate users decision process for the relevance ranking of the result set entries. First empirical studies are presented to show the impact of the ranking mechanisms on the relevance scoring.
MEMORY and MEMORIES in Lexical Environment: Bibliometric Analysis of SSCI DB
The Institute of Philisiphy, Moscow, RUSSIA, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The goal of this study is to discover lexical
environment and to show the thematic groups for the words MEMORY and
MEMORIES. The present study is an exercise in application of distributional
statistical analysis (DSA) to the corpus of abstracts, containing words
MEMORY and MEMORIES. This formal analysis 'discovers' multiword sequences
(potential terms of a science discipline). The data for the present
bibliometric study were drawn from SSCI DB 2005, including many fields
of social sciences (Economics, Neurosciences, Psychology etc.)
International Collaboration in EU 6th Framework Programme: The Case of India and China
Archimedes Foundation, EU Innovation Centre, Väike-Turu 8, Tartu 51013 (Estonia), email@example.com
Collaborative research will constitute
the bulk and the core of European Union (=EU) research funding. Ambitious
idea to be the most successful knowledge based society by 2010 calls
for attraction not only European resources but also resources from
all around the world. Promoting international research cooperation
will be the main guarantee of success. European funding has to be increased
to meet the challenges from the USA and Japan, as well as from the
rapidly emerging economies in Asia and some other parts of the world.
Countries such as China, India are investing massively in higher education
and knowledge and are already very competitive.
China and India have traditional
collaboration partners which constitute the core of countries. Traditional
partners for China and India are neighbouring countries – Japan,
South Korea, Australia, Taiwan, and Singapore. At the same time, partners
from USA are leading almost in all cases. Germany, UK and France belong
to the traditional partners in all cases. In sum, foreign co-authors
constitute about quarter of total amount of authors.
The Distribution of Author Frequency in Journals of Different Topics and Different Countries
Hamzehali Nourmohammadi 1, Walther Umstätter 2
1 Institute of Library Science at
the Shahed University of Tehran, firstname.lastname@example.org
The distribution of author frequencies in different journals can be used as an indicator for the typology of special journals. Like the Impact Factor, the Immediacy Factor or the Half Life, the Journals Author Distribution (JAD) is helpful for continuous categorization of journals. The involved Power Law is used to get simple factors for the comparison of the analysed journals. So we can find differences for natural and social sciences, for core journals and more peripheral journals in the Science Citation Index, and for different countries.
Human Resource, Society and Role of Corporate Sector in India
S P Pati
The ancient heritage and culture
of our Country was unparallel and India had excelled in almost all
fronts like Science, Mathematics, Music, Economics, Art, Literature
and many more areas. The imagination of writers of Ramayan, Mahabharat,
and discovery of zero, astrophysical calculation with a pair of sticks,
the composition of iron pillar, Chanakya’s Arthasastra and the
teachings of Geeta are respected as heights of our achievements, knowledge,
culture and belief. The revolutionary ideas like wireless transmission
of intelligence and vision, the mass-energy conversion etc., were indicated
in our puranas. The Universities of Ujjain, Taxilla were world’s
excellent centers of learning. The forest above the earth and the mines
below it made our country reach which inducted smile in common man.
However, lack of communication between places made the people divided
and foreign power invaded/looted India times and again and finally
our Country went under foreign rule for hundreds of years and driven
with back-gear. Our wealth transported overseas, our culture became
distorted, our people suffered from atrocities, society became non-existent
and miseries imprinted sorrow in every face. The Industry Revolution,
the Development of Science and better standard of life occurred elsewhere
at our cost and they could not reach this Country. Ninety percent people
pushed to below poverty line. The devils like famine in one side and
hatred in the form of riots on other side crushed country even in early
twentieth century. We are grateful to our Father of Nation who brought
independence for us in 1947 after long fight and seeded the seed of
Let us follow the Motto “Let us live and let others live”.
How to Lose Basic Telecom Market Share: A Case Study of BSNL in India
Santanu Roy 1, Arvind Kumar 2
1 Vinod Gupta School of Management,
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302,
India is the fourth largest telecom market in Asia after China, Japan and South Korea and is the eighth largest in the world and the second largest among the developing countries. Historically, the telecom sector in India was entirely under government control but with reforms unfolding in the 1990s the scenario has undergone a radical change. The National Telecom Policy (NTP) announced in 1994 (the first attempt to give a comprehensive roadmap for the Indian telecom sector) was followed by NTP 1999 that brought in third generations of reforms in this sector. During the past few years, the total subscriber base of telecom services has been growing at a rate of about 22%. This is largely due to the rapid increase in cellular service subscribers (http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/ctps/services.htm). Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), a Government of India undertaking, was constituted in October, 2000. This is the world's 7th largest telecommunications company providing a comprehensive range of telecom services in India: wire line, CDMA mobile, GSM Mobile, internet, broadband, carrier services, MPLS-VPN, VSAT, VoIP services, IN Services etc. Within a span of five years it has become one of the largest public sector units in India.BSNL is headquartered in New Delhi, India and is driven by 26 Telecom Circles, 3 world class training centres, 2 metros, 4 project & maintenance units, 4 specialized telecom units and 6 telecom factories. It has vast experience in planning, installation, network integration and maintenance of switching & transmission networks. In the metros of Delhi and Mumbai, its sister concern, the Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) operate. The present paper reports the results of a study that attempts to probe into the above questions and arrive at some plausible answers as to why such a large number of subscribers are deserting BSNL’s B-fone fixed wire line segment. The study aims to bring out the major and minor contributing factors leading to the erosion of BSNL’s landline customer base in general and the high end users in particular. It appears from the study results that the management of BSNL is still living in the past, unable to cope with the changing times. BSNL, like its predecessor the Department of Telecommunications of the Government of India, had earlier thrived in an era of little competition and monopoly control over the telecom sector. With liberalization of the Indian economy in general and the Indian telecom sector in particular having finally set in, the private telecom players are now firmly in place, with access to new technology, adopting new work ethics and an aggressive drive to capture the emerging markets with new schemes tailored to suit specific market segments. BSNL, a state-owned enterprise, cannot afford to remain oblivious to these developments. The present study probes into the issues that affect customer satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) in an age where the customers are much more aware about what other options are available to them in the telecomm market and in the light of a steady drift of customers away from BSNL into the lap of the private players. The implications of the study results would be highly invaluable to the management researchers in general and those interested in telecom sector in particular. It might assist the management of BSNL in reassessing the current position of the organization in the telecom market, and more importantly, helping them take decisive steps to overcome the situation in which they find themselves in at the moment and facilitate creating a customer-responsive culture in the organization.
Communication and Collaborative Research Pattern of Indian Ocean Science: A Scientometrics Study
S L Sangam
Department of Library and Information
Science, Karnatak University, Dharwad –580 003 India,
The paper discusses the year wise growth of scientific productivity and authorship pattern in Indian Ocean science. It investigates the nature, type of collaborated research and the degree of collaboration linkages. Further it compares the growth v/s collaboration. Concludes that there is a high degree of collaboration in Indian Ocean science.
Conflict Management Strategies in Different Cultures: IT Researchers in China, Germany and India
Annedore Schulze 1, Ying Han 2, Katrin Meischner 3
- University, Institut of Psychology, Berlin
Controversies and Conflicts During the Genesis of Scientific Innovations:
conflicts have been studied in various vocational groups: e.g. teachers,
politicians, managers, lawyers, businessmen etc. However, there is
a very obvious reserve to study social conflicts among scientists (in
the field of science and technology). This phenomenon is particularly
remarkable because especially the innovativeness of research makes
one expect conflict-ridden arguments par excellence. Although since
Coser (1972), at the latest, it is out of the question that conflicts
and their constructive solution lead to emergent evolutions within
groups (by making separating elements visible and leading them to a
new synthesis), the realization that conflicts must be considered as
constituting features of the research process has hardly entered the
A Quantitative Analysis of Spices Research in India
P Senthilkumaran 1*, A Amudhavalli 2
Cardamom Research Institute, Spices Board, Myladumpara, Kailasanadu – 685
553, Kerala, India, Email:
This paper attempts to analyse the quantitative literature on Spices for the chosen period, 1968 to 2002 at the regional and national levels using HORT-CD database. Asian countries are the major producers, marketers, and consumers of spices in the world. Hence, the R & D activity is assumed to be very high on this subject. India is one of the ancient and acclaimed Asian countries in Spices. The focus is to identify the distribution of Spices literature by categories of spices, forms of publications, core journals, prime authors and institutions at the national level.
Mapping of Malaria Research from India on the Basis of Indian Science Abstracts : An Initial Findings
Sikha Sinha 1, Arvind Singh Kushwah 2, Divya Srivastava 3
1 Scientometric Unit, Division of Publication & Information, Indian Council of Medical Research, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi – 29, India, email@example.com
Current global picture of malaria indicates it is a public health problem is prevalent in more than 90 countries. In India, the burden of malaria has deteriorated in past few years. Role of Indian scientist working in this field can be traced out by publications from research journals. Papers related to malaria were collected from Indian Science Abstracts as it covers almost all research journals published in India and is the only Indian abstracting service. The study was carried out for a period of 30 years with interval of 10 years. This data was collected for the years 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000. Later on further studies will be carried out for continuous years i.e. from 1970 to 2000. The data was analysed to map out the trend of research, most active institutes and prolific journals for Malaria. Maximum papers appeared during the year of 2000, some of the most active institutes were National Malaria Research Center(MRC-ICMR), Central Drug Research Institute, (CSIR), International Center for Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology and National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme(NVBDCP). It was interesting to see that with the development of new technologies in medical sciences, there was a tremendous increase in work related to molecular biology, immunology, proteomics, vaccine development and antimalarial compounds. Though in some areas like malaria in children and malaria during pregnancy there were smaller number of papers. Before 1980’s papers were mostly focused on Plasmodium parasite and vector control. Apart from increase in number of papers in modern biology after 1980’s, there were few other upcoming areas also exploratory. The study is still going on, these are part of initial findings.
Link Analysis as Indicators for Geriatric Websites from India
Divya Srivastava 1, Ajit Mathur 2
1 Scientometric Unit, Division of
Publication & Information, Indian Council of Medical Research,
Ansari Nagar, New Delhi – 29, India, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Several initiatives have been proposed which could be applied at different levels to improve the average quality of web sites. In the present study efforts have been made to identify risk markers for disappearance of certain geriatric Indian web sites. The elderly population is increasing globally, so is in India. For this cross section of society, Internet is very useful communication media, therefore, the sites catering to their needs must maintain their quality and should survive. Various webometric parameters are being employed in the study to develop a model for calculation of survival chances of a web site.
The Role of Collaborative Linkages between Academia and the Industry in Health Care: A Case Study of HIV/AIDS Vaccine.
S Srivastava 1, K Satyanarayana 2
1 Intellectual Property Rights Unit,
Indian Council of Medical Research, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029,
The emergence of new diseases in the developing world like HIV/AIDS, SARS and more recently Bird flu outbreak along with established scourges like TB, Malaria etc. have created a new urgency for a need to establish mechanisms that could synergize global efforts to find health products for local needs. Innovative health technologies can be harnessed the benefit to billion of people through public-private partnerships (PPPs), a strategy to build up and optimize national and international R&D efforts with local initiatives. PPPs innovatively combine different skills and resources from institutions in the public and private sectors to address persistent global health problems. One recent example on PPP from India to develop a safe and cost effective HIV/AIDS vaccine indigenously through a tripartite partnership between ICMR (Govt. of India) - International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) –an international non-governmental agency and Therion- a New York based company. A comprehensive Memorandum of Understanding between the parties covers the development, upscaling, manufacturing and distribution of the vaccine globally. The Govt. of India shall hold exclusive rights to license the vaccine in India and neighboring (SAARC) countries while the IAVI will have exclusive license to manufacture and sell to vaccine in rest of the world. The need for such PPPs for finding solutions for HIV/AIDS and other diseases of poor from the Indian context will be discussed.
A Structural Analysis of Collaboration between European Research Institutes Based on their Research Profiles
B Thijs 1, W Glänzel 1,2
1 Katholieke Universiteit
Leuven, Steunpunt O&O Statistieken, Leuven (Belgium)
The comparative analysis of the
research performance of research institutions is often faced with the
problem of their different profiles. Research profiles have their own
characteristics in terms of publication activity, citation impact and
scientific collaboration. In an earlier study (Thijs & Glänzel,
2007) we have developed
the methodology for classifying likewise research institutes by groups
according to their research profiles. institutional level. Based on
the classification of European universities and non-university research
institutes by eight clusters we could analyse the research performance
and dynamics of each cluster. In the present study we will study collaboration
characteristics of these clusters; in particular, we will analyse collaboration
patterns both within profile clusters and among them.
Collaborative Research Networks of Japanese Universities: Bibliometric Trends
Yuan Sun 1
1 National Institute of Informatics (NII), 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430, Japan
Recently industry has shown a large expectation in partnerships with universities in Japan. Since around 2000, the government has taken various approaches to promote industry-university collaborations, and universities also make various efforts to act in response to all kind of needs for the collaborations with industry. However, our data revealed that there were some gaps in perception of the research collaborations between universities and industry. Research linkage with university has become more and more important for industry and its proportion is increasing year by year, but the same can not be said on the university side. In this study, we take a look at the situation, trends and characteristics of research collaboration in Japan broadly, especially focusing on university-industry collaboration and the increasing international collaboration.
Evaluation Indicators for an Abstracting Journal – A Case Study of Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
R K Verma* 1 , R K Kamble 2
1 Scientist & Editor, Indian
Science Abstracts, NISCAIR, 14 Satsang Vihar Marg, New Delhi-110 067
Journals play a significant role in dissemination of S&T information. Journals are being published in different fields with some “quality journals” and other with less significant. Quality of a journal is a multifaceted notion. Journals can be evaluated on the basis of different purposes and hence, the result of such evaluation exercises can be quite different depending on the indicator(s) used. Hence, it becomes an important issue to evaluate a journal on the basis of various indicators to determine its quality. A range of different evaluation indicators has been developed for primary journals viz. impact factor, journal ranking however, with less emphasis on abstracting journals (abstracting/indexing journals) evaluation indicators. Indian Science Abstracts being a abstracting journal has been playing a significant role in dissemination of S&T information. This study is focused on the evaluation indicators for Indian Science Abstracts. Different types of evaluation indicators under ‘Process’ and ‘Outcome’ viz., coverage period, types of index, keywords per abstracts, number of journals covered, number of abstracts published, subscriber growth, online visitors and searchable database have been discussed. Concludes that a continued review of evaluation indicators is essential to ensure continuous quality enhancement of service.
How do Small Software Firms Survive in India?
P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan
Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 India, E-mail: email@example.com http://web.iitd.ac.in/~vignesh
Despite the larger amount of literature
on Indian software industry, existing knowledge about small software
firms is minimal. Based on 173 semi-structured interviews with software
entrepreneurs and other players in the information technology industry
in India, the paper examined how small software firms are surviving
in India. We observed that presence of smaller players in Indian IT
industry appears as a ‘hygiene factor’ (absence may be
recognized greatly than presence) in the total eco system. Small firms
are ‘poor imitators’ of larger service companies and operate
on export-services mode. They serve as a ‘training ground’ for
larger firms and help in deepening the labour pool of the industry.
Small firms access the global market opportunities through personal
networks of the founders initially, and use other lower cost mechanisms
in the later stages.
Subject-wise Information Needs of ICAR : An Analytical Study
P Visakhi 1, Ramesh Kundra 2
1 Librarian. IASRI, ICAR, Library
Avenue, New Delhi, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is the major agricultural scientific organization in the country and unique in having concurrent responsibility for research, education and extension. It works under Department of Agricultural Research and Education ( DARE), Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India. To fulfill its objectives of encompassing the full spectrum of research activities of agriculture, the ICAR has, over the years, established a network of 52 Central Research Institutes, 6 National Bureaus, 10 Project Directorates, 27 National Research Centers, 90 Coordinated Research Projects and 8 Trainers Training Centres, 261 Krishi Vigyan Kendras Deemed Universities 5 employing about 6000 scientists and students These are distributed throughout the country and provide the foundation material to meet the agricultural research needs of the country The ICAR has also sponsored and supported a large number of research projects, located with the SAUs and State Government, to research into farming systems in an integrated manner (Srivatava and Srivastava ) Majority of users need resources in print but services in electronic format.
Materials Science Research in India: A Quantitative Study, 1993-01
Rajpal Walke 1, S M Dhawan 2 ,D K Tewari 3, B M Gupta 4
1, 2 & 3 National
Physical Laboratory, New Delhi
Describes the importance of materials science and the current efforts in India in R&D. Discusses the status of materials science research output in India during 1993-01, with a view to analyze its publication size and growth, media of communication, strong and weak areas of research, quality of research output, nature of collaboration, and institutional productivity and quality.
Designing a possible new patent classification approach based on the SRR’s colon classification scheme
R D Sathish Kumar 1 , S Maheswaran 2, K R Sridharan 3
1Information Officer, 2Scientist, 3Dy Director, Information Division, Structural Engineering Research Centre, CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai -600113, India
This paper proposes a new approach to design a new patent classification scheme. Various classification systems exist and most have been designed so that each technical aspect of an invention to which a patent document relates can be used for classifying as a whole. A patent document may contain several technical aspects of an invention, and therefore be allocated many classification symbols. The existing schemes such as IPC and USPC are too general to meet the needs and demands of specific industries/technology areas. In addition, some patents are placed in inappropriate categories, making it difficult for enterprises to carry out R&D planning, technology positioning, patent strategy-making and technology forecasting in a self contained exhaustive manner. Due to explosion of technological innovation, technologies are evolving by hybridization, agglomeration and cluster of multi subjects and also by their application to various multi-disciplinary fields. Therefore, there is strong need to modify patent classification system which will make search more reliable meaningful and comprehensive. A faceted classification, proposed to be adopted in this paper, differs from the traditional one in that it does not assign fixed slots to subjects in sequence, but uses clearly defined, mutually exclusive, and collectively exhaustive aspects, properties, or characteristics of a class or specific subject.
Concentration without collaboration – a regional perspective on the emergence of nanotechnology
Previous research indicated that research and development activity in nanoscience and nanotechnology is concentrated on a comparatively small number of regions. Policies in a range of countries have supported the creation of regional nanotechnology clusters. However, more recent work seems to suggest, at least for a number of cases, that networks of collaboration among nanotechnology firms are technologically driven rather than localised in individual regions. In other words, even though one can trace regional concentration of scientific and technological activity in this emergent area, collaboration at the regional level is not as forthcoming as one may have thought. This study seeks to explore some of the reasons for this situation and draws on a multi-method approach, examining bibliometric, patent and firm-level data. Our observations suggest that nanotechnology is still an area of loosely coupled, inter-related and overlapping rather than broadly converging technologies. One can still track quite distinct technological clusters. While a considerable number of nanotechnology firms cater to a range of markets, only very few firms could be identified that integrate nano-scale technologies. Before the background of these findings, the apparent paradox of strong regional concentration of R&D activity without a corresponding intensity of collaboration within the region seems less surprising.
of effective factors of publishing papers in ISI magazines
by the Isfahan School of Medical Science faculties
Nouri 1, Farshid Danesh 2
One of the reliable tools in the evaluation of science and research efficiencies is the level of using ISI data bases. This fact, allows many research centers and universities to increase both the quality and the quantity of their papers, articles, reports, etc., in this data base in order to achieve higher scientific and research reputations. Some of the faculties within the Isfahan School of Medical Science have adopted special approaches which have helped them publish their works in the aforementioned data base. The names of these faculties have been indexed in the "Web of Science" as the authors of at least one scientific paper or article. This research presents these approaches. In this work, we have used a questionnaire which its stability has been approved by "Alpha KRONBakh 7.2". The total number of published papers by the Isfahan School of Medical Science faculties in 2000-2005 in the "Web of science" data base is 204. While the Isfahan School of Medical Science has 628 faculties, only 7.8% of the them have published research articles or papers in ISI data base. There are several effective factors which have helped the faculties and researchers publish their research: English proficiency, applying proper research and statistics approaches, encouraging methods applied by the university, proficient knowledge of scientific centers and their resources and data bases.
How Innovative are Indian Universities? : An examination based on Patenting Activity
The genesis of many of the new technologies can be traced to the innovation work in universities. The embedded technology is commonly protected by patents as they provide exclusive monopoly and also protects them from plausible infringement. The universities are particularly active in the OECD countries in this regard. Biotechnology and ICT have emerged as key areas where universities in the OECD countries are playing the most active role. The innovation activities of universities in these countries have been extensively studied. However, there are only a few studies that have examined the innovation activity of universities in developing countries. The present article attempts to fill this gap by examining the innovation activity of Indian universities by examining their patenting activity. The patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office and the Indian Patent Office to Indian Universities during the period 1990-2002 are examined. The overall trends, main areas of their patenting, collaboration etc are uncovered by this analysis. To properly assess the results that emerge from this analysis international patenting trends by universities, the role of government in fostering this type of innovation and to what extent the Indian government has played a role are also investigated.
The survey of effective factors on publishing scientific articles in ISI journals written by the academic members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.
Rasool Nouri1, Farshid Danesh2
1 Academic members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Nowadays the usage of the ISI databases is one of the important methods for assessment of scientific activities, thus scientific centers specially universities have policies to improve quality and quantity of their researchers' works in the ISI journals and in this way, increase their validity in the scientific national and international societies. The propose of this research is to determine the factors which enabled some academic members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences to publish their works in such journals. The research population included that academic members whom their names as main author for at least one article have indexed during 2000-2005 in the Web of Science. The required data were collected with a questionnaire that devised for this study, the validity and the reliability were accepted. Based on the finding of this research during 2000-2005 whole of the academic members have 204 articles in Web of Science. At the time of surveying this research 7.8 percent of academic members could publish their articles in ISI journals. Some of the important factors that influenced publishing of researchers' scientific articles in ISI journals are familiarity with ISI and its products, encouragements of university, gaining proficiency in English, research methods, statistics and data bases.
Mapping the Indian Scientific Diaspora: Initial Attempts and Problems
We briefly review some of our initial attempts at mapping the population of scientific researchers of Indian origin working abroad and publishing from outside India. The increasing levels of migration of highly educated Indians who are absorbed in scientific research around the world has given rise to a diaspora, that is a potential resource for the country. Ideally one should try to map individuals, their disciplines, publication profiles in time, etc. However there are a number of significant problems that are encountered during this bibliometric exercise which are discussed here.
Modeling the Growth of South African and Indian Medical Literature: A comparison of AIDS literature.
Suresh Kumar 1 ,Ramesh Kundra 2
National Institute of Science Technology & Development Studies, K.S. Krishan Marg, New Delhi 110012 India
The growth in science can be described
in three models: (i) the rate at which the number of scientists increases;
(ii) amount of money being spent on scientific research; and; (iii)
the rate at which scientific literature is increasing - all devoting
different aspects of science output. All the three have good correlation
and hence have an overall impact on the growth of science. But the
growth of science described in terms of scientific literature published
through formal and informal channels of communication has received
considerable attention as there has been a flood of papers on the ‘growth
of scientific information and communication’1. All these studies
have noted the difficulties in measuring scientific output as there
are considerable variations, and all are not amenable to quantitative
analysis. Many sociologists and science historians have reported the
magnitude and direction of scientific growth. Price suggested the application
of models to study the growth of science, one such attempt that provides
meaningful measures of growth overtime, as growth studies are based
on time-series data. Recent attempts have been made to examine the
growth of specialities rather than science as a totality. In this study
we examine and compare the growth of medical science in South Africa